One Hour Martinizing
American Sheet & Tin Company
The Cambridge Armory
Armstrong Grocery Store
James M. Armstrong, Postmaster and Proprietor sitting in front of the Armstrong General Store and Postal Office, Clio, Ohio.
“Jim” Armstrong and his wife Emily Bennett Armstrong in front of their home.
Next door to their General Store that also housed the clio, Ohio Post office. Circa 1885
These photo’s provided by Marilyn McCormick Murphy
Severns General Store cirra 1950
This store was operated by the Severns from 1870s to the 1930s, since demolished.
The wooden structure to the left is the saddle shop operated by Mr Braniger in the 1800s.
Photo provided by Tom Severns
Cambridge City Bakery
Cambridge Glass Co.
photos courtsey of Tim Smith
Stories of Guernsey County Page 704
Making Glass in Guernsey County
Cambridge Known for Its Glassware.–To many people of the outside world Cambridge is best known as a place where glassware is manufactured. The reason for this will be obvious when we say that The Cambridge Glass Company maintains showrooms for the display of its products in New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Denver, Philadelphia and Dallas; and that it ships its manufactured wares into every state of the Union, as well as South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and other parts of the world. As each article bears a Cambridge label, it becomes a permanent advertisement of the city. As its quality is superior and design pleasing, it consequently gives one a favorable impression of Cambridge. As Elgin, Illinois, is known for its watches, and Sheffield, England, for its cutlery, so, to a certain extent, is Cambridge known abroad for its glassware.
Cambridge Glass Company Organized in 1901.–The present Cambridge Glass Company was incorporated in 1901 by Myron L. Case, Addison Thompson, Andrew W. Herron, Carey Norris and Fred L. Rosemond. The power back of it was The National Glass Company whose plans were to form a combine of all glassware factories in the country. Cambridge was chosen as the location for one of its plants because it was reported that this section possessed a good supply of natural gas.
The National Glass Company invited Arthur J. Bennett, of New York City, to come to Cambridge to manage its new factory. Mr. Bennett was then engaged in importing china and glassware for a large eastern firm. Born and educated in London, he came to Boston as a young man and continued an apprenticeship in the glass and pottery trade, begun in his native city. After serving four or five years as a buyer for a Boston house, he became an importer in New York.
Under Mr. Bennett’s directions, The Cambridge Glass Company made its first piece of glassware, a pitcher designed by him, in May, 1902. This first product is still exhibited in the showroom at the factory, as one of its most cherished possessions.
Saved by Mr. Bennett.—When the panic of 1907 came, financial difficulties forced The National Glass Company into bankruptcy. Operations at the Cambridge plant almost ceased, and for two or three years it seemed that the city was about to lose one of its most valuable industries. Almost lonehanded Mr. Bennett kept the plant alive. He had faith in The Cambridge Glass Company. He saw its possibilities. With a business courage seldom paralleled under such conditions, he offered to purchase the factory with all the machinery and personal property. As almost a half million dollars was involved, this was an enormous burden for one individual to assume, but it saved the glass factory for Cambridge. The confidence that bankers had in Mr. Bennett made the transaction possible.
Mr. Bennett carried this proposition through alone in order that he might work out his own plans in a free way. He did not wish an organization whose members might lack the faith and courage necessary at that critical time. He was willing to take the entire risk alone. The fact that all financial obligations were met long before due would indicate that he had a clear conception of the possibilities. When the financial burden had been removed, there came a re-arrangement of the capital structure in order that the business might be perpetuated; also an expansion of the industry until the actual capital invested exceeded a million dollars.
Cambridge Glassware Noted for Quality.—Mr. Bennett is president of The Cambridge Glass Company. Associated with him in its, management are W. L. Orme, vice president; W. C. McCartney, secretary; G. Roy Boyd, treasurer; and J. C. Kelly, factory superintendent. These men became affiliated with the organization very near its beginning and have been “valiant helpers” of Mr. Bennett in his efforts to make the plant one of the greatest of its kind in the world.
The Cambridge Glass Company employs an average of seven hundred persons, the most of whom are skilled workers. All products are hand made; no automatic machines are used. Due to this the Cambridge glassware has been given a distinction of quality throughout the world. A fine grade of various kinds of glassware in both crystal and colors is manufactured, such as tableware, stemware, tumblers and novelties. There are many hundred designs, mainly Mr. Bennett’s own creations, which are covered by patents.
Exhibited products of The Cambridge Glass Company won important medals at the St. Louis Exposition in 1904, the Jamestown Exposition in 1907, and the Golden West Exposition in 1909. It is only through a visit to the large display room at the factory or in one of the cities named in the first paragraph of this article that a person can obtain an adequate idea of the great variety, quality and beauty of the products of The Cambridge Glass Company.
Cambridge Iron & Steel
Represented here is the plant as it was in the early days of the Iron and Steel Industry in Cambridge. Many improvements and extensions have been made in the fifty years the plant has been operated. Today it is known as the Guernsey Works.
Stories of Guernsey County by Wm. Wolfe page 633
Cambridge Motor & Storage
Cambridge Roofing Co.
Chas. H. Sipe Jr. Building
By Sipe building
Taken around 1947-48
These photo’s provided by Homer “Hodie” B. Clipner
Dorne & Wood Millinery
Frank Raymonds Dry Goods Store
Located in the Berwick Block
Chas W. Forney Lumber
Byesville Glass Plant
photo courtesy of Tim Smith
Hospital’s of Guernsey County
Past and Present
CHILDREN’S AND MATERNITY HOSPITAL
The structure at 1113 Beatty Avenue was a Henry Wells, MD facility. It operated as a Children’s and Maternity Hospital from 1916 to presumably 1922 when the Wells Hospital was opened at the corner of Turner Avenue and South Tenth Street. The Maternity Hospital on Beatty Avenue was acquired by the First Christian Church at the corner of Beatty Avenue and Clark Street and razed to increase parking space at the church.
Guernsey Memorial Hospital
Guernsey Memorial Hospital Built in 1952It began with an 84-bed hospital known as Guernsey Memorial Hospital with 30 physicians on staff. Others with top positions were Dr. William L. Denny, chief of staff; Dr. M. C. McCuskey, first president and Dr. J. D. Knapp, secretary-treasurer. Dr. McCuskey was the chief of surgery as well as the head of general surgery when the new hospital opened. Other directors included Dr. J. W. Camp, chief of medical services; Dr. O. R. Jones, chief of obstetrics and gynecology; Dr. Earl E. Conway, chief of pediatrics; Dr. J. D. Knapp, chief of ear, eye, nose and throat services; Dr. Howard Van Noate, temporary director of the laboratory and Dr. F. Gordon Lawyer, head of x-ray.
In 1966, Guernsey Memorial consolidated with Community Hospital.
In 1984 the hospital became a 197-bed facility which included 20 skilled nursing beds.
In 1994, the new 13 bed intensive care unit was added. During 1996 and 1997 renovation of the emergency department was completed.
The hospital name was changed to South Eastern Ohio Regional Medical Center (SEORMC)
Fletcher General Hospital
On November 7, 1942 work began on Fletcher General Hospital, a four and one-half million dollar institution built to accommodate 1,520 people. At this time it was the war department’s latest and most modern facility for overseas war causalities. Its main purpose was to rehabilitate and provide orthopedic treatment to soldiers wounded during World War II.
Fletcher Army Hospital had 126 buildings, including 52 wards. A special railroad line was laid to the hspital to let trains bring soldiers here.
When the first group of soldiers arrived at Fletcher on June 25, 1943 by railroad, the hospital’s patient capacity was 1,520. It was later expanded to 2,400.
In February 1946 it was announced that Fletcher General Hospital was to close due to the end of the war. On March 31, 1946 all remaining army patients were either discharged or transferred out.
The army sold the grounds and buildings to the state and on May 13, 1946 Cambridge State Hospital opened.
Dr. Henry L. Wells built the Wells Hospital in 1921 which he named and dedicated to his father and mother.
Article from The Jeffersonian, Friday, 23 August 1929
Wells Hospital Co. takes over Cambridge Hospital
The merging of two Cambridge hospitals under one head was accomplished Thursday when a transaction was completed whereby The Wells Hospital Co. purchased the controlling interest in The Cambridge Hospital Co., from Dr. George F. Swan, who has operated it since May 4, 1923. The deal is to become effective Sept. 6. E. D. Shively acted as agent in the transaction.
The consolidation of the two hospitals was a complete surprise to many in Cambridge, as the Wells Hospital Co. had recently considered the proposition of enlarging the present hospital on South Tenth street by construction an addition containing 40 rooms. Patronage of the institution ahs increased to such proportions in recent months that expansion was considered mandatory for the best interests of Cambridge and Guernsey county.
In an interview Friday morning Dr. Henry L. Wells advised the Cambridge hospital has facilities for 15 patients and Wells hospital can care for 25 patients. Included in the deal is a six-room house which adjoins the Cambridge hospital on the east. It is the intention of Dr. Wells and Dr. F. C. Huth, who control Wells hospital, to remodel this structure so that 10 additional patients may be cared for therein. A total of 50 patients can therefore be accommodated at one time in the three separate buildings.
It was explained Dr. Swan’s interest in the Cambridge Hospital Co. represents all of the stock with the exception of about $3,000. Until the company is reorganized it will be continued as The Cambridge Hospital Co. The hospital will also retain its present name, Cambridge hospital. Although Dr. F. C. Huth, who ahs been chief surgeon at Wells hospital, will be head surgeon at both buildings. Dr. Henry Wells will maintain the same relations with the hospitals as he has always maintained.
The Wells hospital was built in 1922. It is modern in every respect, contains elaborate medical and surgical equipment, x-ray laboratory, operating rooms, etc. It is the intention of Drs. Wells and Huth to partly utilize the Cambridge hospital property as a children’s hospital also for obstetrical cases, cases for medical treatment, and for some minor and major surgery cases. The property is supplied with up-to-date hospital equipment, a large operating room and an x-ray laboratory.
Dr. Swan said Friday he will continue to practice medicine and surgery in Cambridge. He has been extended the privilege of surgical work in both the Wells and Cambridge hospitals by the new owners. HE explained also, that any patients admitted at the Cambridge hospital between now and Sept 9, when the transfer is made, will be cared for exactly as though no business transaction involving the property had been made.
The new owners are delighted with their acquisition. They explained that many aged people in failing health apply for admission at the South Tenth street hospital but because of lack of room, it being used largely for emergency and operative cases, it was necessary to refuse such patients. In the new property they may be taken care of very well. Likewise minor surgical cases, which require hospitalization for only a few days, may be more readily cared for at the new property, leaving the South Tenth street facilities available for cases of a more serious nature.
Other Guernsey County Hospital’s
Paul Huth, MD managed the hospital for a number of years. Huth Hospital later became the Cambridge Community Hospital.
KEENAN HOSPITAL Located at the Northwest Corner of North Ninth Street and Gomber Avenue, the large white three story structure is still standing. It was the first hospital of record (1906-1915), named after Isaac W. Keenan, MD
Lawrence Hospital, named for W. W. Lawrence, MD and located on Clark Street, Dr. Lawrence purchased this hospital from Dr. Keenan in 1920 and sold it in 1930 to Dr. George F. Swan.
ST. FRANCIS HOSPITAL
The Order of St. Francis Nuns operated the South Tenth Street facility as St. Francis Hospital. This hospital was built by Dr. Henry L. Wells.(see Wells Hospital for a complete story.)
Physician brothers, George F. and Reo Swan, MD’s operated Swan hospital until June 30, 1953 when it was closed. The equipment, supplies, medicines, accounts receivable, and cash on hand was donated to Guernsey Memorial Hospital, with which both brothers became associated.
Colonel Joseph D. Taylor began the erection of a hotel, naming it the Berwick in honor of the town in Maine from which his wife came. The building was completed and opened on August 16, 1887. Colonel Taylor purchased the property in 1866.
Stories of Guernsey County by Wm. Wolfe page 587
Fires of 1891 and 1895
Burned Over Same Area.–Lightning may not strike twice in the same place, but fires have been known to do so. Two of the three outstanding fires in the history of Cambridge burned over the same ground. One of these occurred in 1891; the other, in 1895. Buildings that were erected to replace ones destroyed by the former were consumed by the latter.
Lack of Water.–At 2 o’clock Saturday afternoon, November 21, 1891, fire broke out in the center of the Taylor block adjoining the Berwick hotel. When discovered, flames were pouring from the attic over the general offices of the C. & M. Railroad Company, and the furniture store of McDonald and McCollum.
In their efforts to prevent the fire from spreading, the firemen were joined by citizens who formed a bucket brigade. At that time Cambridge had no water system. Cisterns and wells near the conflagration were soon exhausted. From a cistern at the court square, having a capacity of 1,000 barrels, a hose was stretched. This burst, causing a delay. It was soon seen that the Berwick could not be saved.
Many people from the surrounding country were in town for their Saturday shopping, and assisted in fighting the flames and removing goods from burning buildings. Drays and wagons were used in hauling property from the section that was threatened. Efforts to head off the fire were continued until after dark. At 6 o’clock Mayor James R. Barr ordered all saloons closed.
Heavy Losses.–The burned area extended from Sixth street along Wheeling avenue nearly tot he alley east. The buildings destroyed belonged to Colonel J. D. Taylor and had a value of $60,000, insured for $38,000. Among the occupants who lost heavily were C. Ayre and Company, drygoods; H. C. Hornbrook, boots and shoes; J. K, McKinney, groceries; McDonald and McCollum, furniture; and J. M. Nelson, candy store. The loss of the Berwick was lamented most, because it was comparatively new.
Following this fire in 1891 a movement was started for a system of waterworks in Cambridge, and a better fire-fighting equipment. Colonel Taylor began at once to rebuild where the fire had destroyed.
Guernsey County Jail
Stories of Guernsey County by Wm. Wolfe page 81
Since 1810, when the county was organized, three jails have stood on the public square. The first of these was built by Zaccheus A. Beatty and Jacob Gomber and donated to the county by them. It was a crude log structure. Having been completed September 3, 1811, it antedated the first court house by two years. A suitable building in which to place those guilty of crime in pioneer days was very necessary; hence its early completion.
The Whipping Post.–A form of punishment other than imprisonment in the log jail was employed, at least on one occasion, according to a story told by Colonel C. P. B. Sarchet. At the August session of the common pleas court held in 1816, Samuel Timmins was found guilty by jury of “uttering base coin,” and was sentenced by the court to receive nineteen lashes on the bare back, in one case, and twenty lashes in the other. The president judge was William Wilson and the three associate judges were Jacob Gomber, Robert Speer and Thomas B. Kirkpatrick. Elijah Dyson, the sheriff, administered the lashes.
The place of whipping was the southwestern corner of the court square. Here had been an oak tree about two feet in diameter whose top had been blown off, leaving a slivered stump eight or ten feet high. To this the prisoner was tied, after having been stripped to the waist. Assembled to see the whipping were the grand jurors who had indicted him, the petit jurors who had found him guilty, and many citizens of the town.
Escapes Made.–Like its two successors the old log jail did not always hold its prisoners. An escape occurred in 1819. Three men who committed highway robbery on Zane’s Trace, between Beymerstown (Old Washington) and Frankfort (the lost town), were captured and placed in the jail. Just after dark one evening they managed to raise a smoke in the cell and called to the sheriff that the jail was on fire. When the sheriff opened the door to investigate, they knocked him down, rushed out into the darkness and reached the dense woods north of town. They were never recaptured.
The Jail of 1835.–For twenty-five years the old log jail served the county; then in 1835 came a new one. This was a brick building. In that day it was considered a very good prison, and, together with the brick court house, gave the court square such a dignity as to prompt the citizens of the town to beautify the grounds.
Following the session of the grand jury in April, 1870, that body of men inspected the jail. Their report to the county commissioners attracted county-wide attention. They said the old jail was becoming dilapidated; that the wooden parts of it were rotting away; that there was very little ventilation; that the cells were filthy and unwholesome; that there was a stench from the decomposed filth, that filled the entire building; that three persons had made their escape from it during the year. They urged that a new jail be constructed as soon as possible.
Petitions and letters were sent to the commissioners from all parts of the county. Some favored action for a new jail and others opposed it. A final count gave 854 in favor of a new jail, and 1,113 against it. But regardless of the expressed wish of a majority of the people, the commissioners, at a meeting held in June, 1870, unanimously adopted a resolution offered by William Brown, one of their members, “that the board proceed to take the necessary steps for building a new county jail.”
The Present Jail.–Plans for the building were drawn by Hugh Mitchell, of New Philadelphia. It was estimated that the cost would be $26,000, including the sheriff’s residence. Then came a controversy as to the location. Many preferred the northwest corner of the square, so that it would front on both West Eighth street and Steubenville avenue. This was overruled by the commissioners. The cornerstone was laid by Commissioner Brown on Friday, May 12, 1871, and the walls were started with brick burned near the jail. It was completed in December, 1871. James Sherman, who had violated a liquor law, was accorded the honor of being the first person quartered there.
Aside from the necessary repairs on the jail proper, from time to time, and some improvements on the sheriff’s residence, the building has not been changed since it was erected. It was made to accommodate twenty-five prisoners. On at least one occasion accommodations were needed for two times that many. There are two detention rooms for women, in each of which two may be cared for.
As this jail was built to meet the needs of 1871, one should not expect it to be adequate today. Many of the defects of its predecessor in its last days, as pointed out by the grand jury in the report to the commissioners, are in evidence again.
Drawn by Mrs. Paul D. Ewing from an old print
Stories of Guernsey County by Wm. Wolfe Page 437-438-439-440
Madison college was located in Antrim. For twenty years it was a famous seat of learning, at which many men of Guernsey and surrounding counties, who were prominent in business and the various professions, received their education. It was the only college ever chartered for this county.
Founded by Dr. Findlay.—In 1835 a resident of Antrim by the name of Dr. Sameul Findley, seeing the need of higher education for the young people of the community than that provided in the little log schoolhouses, decided to open a private school and teach the higher branches to those who might wish to study them. Eight young men of the vicinity were enrolled, and a room in his cabin home was fitted out for recitation purposes.
The school was a success; the people of Antrim encouraged the project and resolved to provide a suitable building for an academy at which young people might prepare for college or pursue studies beyond those offered in the common schools. On March 16, 1837, the Philomathean Literary Institute was chartered by the legislature of Ohio, to be located at Antrim, Guernsey county. According to the papers of incorporation, the annual income was not to exceed ten thousand dollars. The number of students increased rapidly; there was a demand for college as well as preparatory work, so on March 16, 1839, by another act of the legislature, the name was changed to Madison College.
So eager were the people of Madison township for such an institution to be established there that they contributed money, material and work, many of them beyond their means, in order that a college building might be erected. It was a two story brick structure with two rooms on the first floor and one large room, used as an assembly hall, on the second. Dr. Samuel Findley was the first president, and Milton Green, M. D., the first secretary. In 1846, Rev. Samuel Mehaffey became president, and following him in succession were A. D. Clark, D. D., Rev. W. Doal, Rev. Thomas Palmer and Rev. Samuel Findley, Jr. son of the founder.
The institution prospered. In 1842 it was advertised that the fall term would open on the first Monday in November, and the tuition rates would be ten dollars a session. While intended at first as a school for young men only, both sexes were now admitted and the college was outgrowing its quarters.
Board Was Cheap.—The college catalogue of 1854 described Antrim as a healthy locality, and a moral, religious and enterprising community. Students could obtain board at $1.50 a week; by clubbing, at forty to sixty cents a week, including room rent. Although the college was under denominational control, students were permitted to attend church on the Sabbath wherever their parents desired them to worship, there being churches of several denominations in the town.
Faculty in 1854.—Composing the faculty of Madison College in 1854, were Rev. Samuel Findley, Jr., A.M., president and professor of mental science and Greek; Robert W. McFarland, A.M., professor of mathematics and natural science; Rev. Samuel Findley, Sr., D.D., professor of moral science and Hebrew literature; R. G. Stephenson, M.D., professor of anatomy, physiology and hygiene; William F. Templeton, A.B., professor of Latin and English literature; James Hagerty, tutor in languages and English literature; Miss Adelphia A. Powers, principal of the seminary; Miss Marie E. Crosby, associate principal of the seminary; Miss Nancy Wallace, teacher in painting and drawing. Among the references were R. B. Moore, Esq., Cambridge; A. D. Lord, M.D., Columbus; Hon. John A. Bingham, Cadiz; Joseph Ray, M. D., Cincinnati; and Thomas Brown, Esq., Cleveland. Joseph Ray, M.D., was the author of the Ray’s series of arithmetics.
In the college were three literary societies, two of them composed of young gentlemen, and the other of the young ladies. In the student body were young men and women from many places in Ohio. Students from Illinois, Iowa and Pennsylvania were enrolled there.
Curriculum.—The college curriculum was mainly classical, as a majority of the young men students were being trained for the ministry. In addition to a preparatory course the following collegiate course was required for graduation:
Freshman Class—Horace, Memorabilia, Homer’s Illiad, Algebra, Plane and Spherical Trigonometry, Roman History.
Sophomore Class—Livy, Cicero de Amictia de Senectute, Thucydides, Conic Sections, Mensuration, Surveying and Navigation, Analytical Geometry, Greek History.
Junior Class—Tacitus’s Germania and Agricola, Cicero de Oratore, Demosthenes de Corona, Prometheus and Antigone, Natural Philosophy, Mental Philosophy, Logic, Geology.
Senior Class—Review of Latin and Greek, Evidences of Christianity, Natural Theology, Rhetoric, Political Economy, Moral science, Analogy, Chemistry, Elements of Criticism.
Why the College Was Closed.—During the administration of Dr. Samuel Findley, Jr., a movement was started for a new college building. This necessitated the raising of such a large amount of money that there was much objection to it. However, the building was erected in spite of the opposition. Rev. H. Wilson succeeded Dr. Findley as president, then came Rev. William Lorimer who was the last.
They had built beyond their means and could not meet their financial obligations. The exciting times just preceding the Civil war detracted from the interest in the school. When the war opened, the college closed and was never re-established.
The Old Holler Tavern
6th & Wheeling, Cambridge, Ohio
Pencil Drawing of Toll Station
Stories of Guernsey County by Wm. Wolfe page 219
Toll Gates on the National Road
Rate of Toll Was Determined by Amount of Damage Done.–Just as those who use the roads today pay a gasoline tax for their maintenance, so did those who traveled the National Road in the early days pay a toll in order that there might be funds for keeping it in good condition. It was rightly reasoned that the rates of toll should be determined by the wear on the road, and consequently, each vehicle or animal was taxed in proportion to the damage it might do to the road-bed. A greater toll was charged for cattle than for sheep or hogs; for wagons of narrow tires than those of wide tires; and for a carriage drawn by four horses than for one drawn by two.
Toll rates were changed frequently. A schedule in effect in Guernsey county as well as in other Ohio counties, in 1832, is here given, in part, as follows: Score of sheep or hogs, .05; score of cattle, .10; horse and rider, .04; every sulky or chaise drawn by one horse, .08, and .04 for every additional horse; every chariot or coach, .12 1/2, and .03 for every horse in addition; every vehicle with wheels under four inches in breadth, .06 1/4, and .02 additional for every horse drawing same; every vehicle with wheels exceeding six inches in width, free.
Exemptions Were Granted.– Exemptions from paying toll were granted persons going to or returning from church, a funeral, a place of election, their ordinary places of business if in the county, to mill and to market. Clergymen went through free, as did children on their way to or from school. This, of course, included the vehicles in which they traveled and the animals drawing them. A stage and horses carrying United States
mail were passed through free. Stage companies took advantage of this privilege by putting a mail sack on each passenger coach. It is said that bids as low as one cent a year were submitted for carring the mail. This abuse was later corrected by a law requiring that passengers on stage coaches should pay toll.
Toll Gates in Guernsey County.–There were four toll gates in Guernsey county, on the National Road. They were intended to be located about ten miles apart in Ohio; however, this was the average distance. Coming into the county from the east, one reached the first gate at Bridgewater; the second, a short distance west of Washington; the third, a short distance east of Cambridge; and the fourth, about two miles west of Cambridge. That two were placed so close to Cambridge was probably for the purpose of getting toll from persons coming into town from either direction.
Toll-gate keepers were appointed by the governor at first, but later by the commissioners. In 1832 the salary was $180 per year. This was afterwards increased to $200, with an additional five per cent of all tolls collected in excess of $1,000. Extra compensation by the commission plan proved unsatisfactory, and the salary again dropped back to the $200.
Payment of Toll Was Evaded.–As might be expected many attempts were made to evade the payment of toll. Travelers, familiar with the county, would sometimes detour when approaching a toll gate. Church-goers were frequently more numerous than church attendants, and there were more funerals than deaths. Laws were passed whereby one could be severely punished for such an offense as evading the payment of toll, and every tollgate keeper was authorized to arrest one suspected of attempting it.
After the care of the National Road was given over to the commissioners of the counties through which it passed, other forms of revenue for it maintenance were found, and the toll gates were gradually removed.
B & O tunnel 1898
West End of B & O tunnel 1930
This photo courtesy of Tim Smith
Stories of Guernsey County by Wm. Wolfe Page 192
The First Road.—For the first thirty years of its history, Guernsey county was entered mainly by way of Zane’s Trace, that being the principal road leading into it. Then came the National Road which was an important factor in the development of the county during the next thirty ears; and then the advent of the railroad.
We still have the National Road and the railroad, but Zane’s Trace is gone. Only here and there can be found evidences, now almost entirely obliterated, of the road that once extended across Guernsey county, and over which the pioneers came into this western country more than a hundred years ago.
Travelers from the eastern part of the country, when they reached Wheeling, took flat boats down the Ohio River if they wanted to go farther. The fact that the interior of Ohio could be reached only with difficulty prompted Congress in May, 1796, to authorize Ebenezer Zane, the founder of Wheeling, to blaze a trail from Wheeling to Limestone (Maysville), Kentucky. For his services he was to receive three tracts of land, each one mile square. These were to be located where the trail crossed the Muskingum, the Hocking and the Scioto rivers. Zanesville is located on the Muskingum tract, Lancaster on the Hocking, and Chillicothe on the Scioto.
The group of men who blazed the trail was headed by Ebenezer Zane’s brother, Jonathan Zane. He was a noted hunter and Indian fighter and was familiar with the vast forest country west of Wheeling. His advice was accepted in determining the route. Another member of the party was John McIntire, a son-in-law of Ebenezer Zane. For their work on this project Ebenezer Zane deeded them the square mile of land at the Muskingum crossing, for the small consideration of one hundred dollars.
There are no records to show how many men were engaged in blazing the trail. It is known that four others besides Zane and McIntire were in the party—John Green, William McCulloch, Ebenezer Ryan and Tomepomehala. There were probably several others, John Green had charge of the pack horses, killed game for food, cooked for the party, and acted as general service man. Tomepomehala was an Indian who served as guide. Axes, mattocks and shovels comprised the equipment of these pioneer road builders.
Description of the Trail.—The work was begun in the summer of 1796. It was not until 1798, it is believed, that the party, working westward, reached the present site of Cambridge. In many places the trail led along routes of travel previously followed by the Indians who, in turn, had traveled the paths beaten thru the forest by the feet of buffaloes.
Zane’s Trace at first was little more than a blazed trail or bridle path two or three hundred miles in length. It crossed what are now Belmont, Guernsey, Muskingum, Perry, Fairfield, Pickaway, Ross, Pike and Adams counties, reaching the Ohio River at the corner of Brown county; on the opposite side of the river was Limestone, Kentucky, now known as Maysville.
According to the contract Zane was to open the road and provide for establishing ferries where it crossed all the larger streams. It was intended, of course, that the smaller streams be forded. Tradition has it that before the course, that the road was accepted by Congress Zane was required to drive a wagon over it, but it is doubtful that this is true. As travel over the trail increased the trail was widened and some changes were made in its course. Today these changes are confusing to those trying to trace the original trail. By a special act of the legislature in 1803, authority was given to make it a good wagon road and change its name to the Wheeling road. A few years later a stage line was established on it and stagecoaches were run between Wheeling and Maysville.